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Sad Poetry in Urdu- All You Need to Know

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Urdu is a lovely language that is particularly well-known for its poetry. Poetry in Urdu is a significant cultural form unto itself. It’s a broad subject with a variety of forms and genres, so it’s an excellent method to get to know the language and culture of the people living there. There are many famous poets who have given us some of the best poems or shayaris that are used widely even today. If you are interested in sad poetry in urdu, let’s find out about the different forms and examples from below. 

Different Forms of Urdu Poetry 

1. Ghazal

    Arabic love poems or love songs are called ghazals. It’s a form of poetry in which couplets share refrain and rhyme. Ghazals typically include a single idea (such as love, death, spring, etc.), which is typically vague since each couplet stands alone as a poem. Nineteen distinct types of ghazals fall into three categories: short, medium, and long, according to how many syllables they have—six to twenty-four. 

    2. Marsiya

      Marsiya, also known as elegy, is a kind of poetry that was first composed by Arabs to honour and grieve the deceased. In Arabic, the term Marsiya is pronounced “Marziya.”Whatever its origins, this kind of poetry gained popularity in Persia and then in Urdu.

      In general, every poetry has an intention, and Marsiya is no different. It is often used to express grief over the loss of a loved one and is more of a sorrow poem. Many sad poetry in urdu is written in Marsiya style in honour of Husayn ibn Ali and a few Karbala martyrs in its unadulterated form. Marsiya is a poem dedicated to a close friend or relative.

      3. Hamd

        The word “hamd”, which means “to praise Allah” (God in Islam), comes from the Quran, the holy book of Muslims. It is used in many different languages, including Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, and Persian. In essence, hamd is a poem that is solely related to Allah and is written in His honour and adoration. There are fewer rigid guidelines for stanzas and prose in this poetic genre. Poets use sincere and unadulterated praise to convey their devotion. The stanzas may or may not rhyme as a result.

        4. Nazm

          Nazm is a kind of poetry with a common theme that is written in the Urdu language and is popular not only in Pakistan but also in Northern India. These poems are mostly about human existence. Every Nazm has an overarching topic that unites all of its lines and couplets, making it impossible to understand any one of them separately. This contrasts with the ghazal, a different kind of popular Urdu poetry that can include stand-alone verses with distinct meanings. 

          5. Qasida

            Qasida, also known as Ghasideh, is a longer form of Persian/Arabic poetry that adheres to the same rhyme scheme and principles as Ghazal but is not always spiritual in the same way. The Qasida’s tone and theme, which include praise, boasting, sarcasm, blame, and other topics like nature and even ethical and religious matters, could be compared to those of an epic poem. 

            A Qasida keeps only one specific tone throughout the entire poem. Because every line has the same rhythm, the entire thing sounds nearly identical. This kind of poetry aims to speak to a specific person or issue. 

            6. Vaasokht

              Vaasokht expresses a person’s displeasure or disappointment with their beloved. Furthermore, the persona contends that the woman’s worth and value are enhanced by his love for her. If the lover doesn’t alter her behaviour, the ego will stop loving her and she will become worthless.

              Eight lines comprised the format of the Vaasokht in ancient times. The latter two lines had their own unique set of rhymes, whereas the previous six lines were in a rhyme scheme. It is also widely used in sad poetry in urdu. 

              Famous Poets Who Wrote sad Poetry in urdu

              1. Faiz Ahmed Faiz

                Revolutionary Pakistani poet Faiz Ahmed Faiz rose to prominence as one of the most well-known Urdu authors. Faiz wrote and published eight books during his career, winning several awards for them. His lyrical poems gained popularity in the USSR and India.

                Despite leading a modest life, Faiz is recognized for his poetry and art and is referred to as Pakistan’s “greatest poet.” Allama Iqbal and Mirza Ghalib, who combined traditional and modern Urdu, had an influence on his work.

                2. Mirza Ghalib 

                  Mirza Ghalib composed sad poetry in urdu and Persian in the last years of the Mughal dynasty. His poetry are mostly ghazals, which have complex rhyme schemes and are usually about love. Poems from Ghalib are still cherished today. Different people have interpreted and sung them in different ways. Being one of the most prominent poets of Urdu and Persian, he is acknowledged as the final great poet of the Mughal era.

                  3. Mir Taqi Mir

                    The most prominent poet of the eighteenth century in Urdu, Mir Taqi Mir was also a trailblazer in the language’s evolution. During the Mughal Era, when Mir lived, Urdu poetry was still developing. He was able to mix the traditional expression with contemporary enrichment from Persian images thanks to his intuitive sense. Rekhta, also known as Hindui, is a new elite language that he succeeded in creating.

                    4. Ajmal Khattak

                      Reformist and popular poet Ajmal Khattak was active in politics both before and after 1947’s Partition. Although Khattak actively opposed the British Raj while he was a student, he joined the National Awami Party during Partition. His brilliant writings are available in Pashto and Urdu. These consist of Pukhtana Shora, Da Wakht Chaga, and Jalwatan ki Shairee. Khattak authored thirteen books in all.

                      Conclusion 

                      Famous poets have explored a wide range of subjects as each form has its own distinct qualities, feelings, and creative expressions. The classic sad poetry in urdu testify to the language’s capacity to convey the depths of feeling with unmatched beauty and poignancy, as well as to the common human experience of pain and loss. 

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